A Message About Stewardship

Monsanto Philippines Inc. (Monsanto) believes that product stewardship is a fundamental component of customer service and responsible business practices. Monsanto is committed to the proper use andlong-term effectiveness of its proprietary plant-incorporated protectant (PIP), Bt technology, Genuity® and YieldGard®, and herbicide-tolerance technology, Roundup Ready 2® (RRC2), through a four-partstewardship program: 1) developing appropriate pest control recommendations, 2) continuing research to refine and update recommendations, 3) education on the importance of effective pest management, and 4) responding to repeated pest control inquiries through a product performance evaluation program.

Monsanto, through its DEKALB® brand, is committed to enhancing farmer productivity and profitability through the introduction of new agricultural biotechnology traits. These new technologies bring enhanced value and benefits to farmers, who, in turn, assume responsibilities for proper management of those traits. Farmers planting DEKALB® corn seeds agree to implement the following stewardship practices:

  • Reading and following the directions for use on all product labels and following applicable stewardship practices as outlined in this DEKALB® Agronomic Handbook
  • Ensuring that the DEKALB® corn seed bag you have purchased is planted as specified in the planting guide
  • Complying with the applicable Insect Resistance Management (IRM) practices for specific biotech traits as mandated by the Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) and set forth in this DEKALB® Agronomic Handbook
  • Following the Weed Resistance Management (WRM) Guidelines specified herein to minimize the risk of resistance development

Insect Resistance Management

Insect resistance management (IRM) is the term used to describe practices aimed at reducing the potential for insect pests to become resistant to a pesticide. Bt IRM is of great importance because of the threat insect resistance poses to the future use of Bt plant-incorporated protectants and of Bt technology as a whole. Specific IRM strategies, such as the high dose Bt and refuge strategy, will mitigate insect resistance to specific Bt proteins produced in corn.

A key component of any IRM plan is a refuge. A refuge is a block or strip of grower’s field that does not contain a Bt technology for controlling targeted insect pests, or the refuge can be included in a BPI

approved seed blend product provided by qualified seed producers/conditioners, licensed by Monsanto.

The primary purpose of a refuge is to maintain a population of insect pests that are not exposed to Bt

proteins. The lack of exposure to Bt proteins allows susceptible insects emerging from the refuge to mate with the rare resistant insects that may emerge from the Bt crop. Susceptibility to Bt technology would then be passed on to their offspring, helping to preserve the long-term effectiveness of Bt technologies. To help reduce the risk of insects developing resistance, the refuge should be planted with a similar product, as close as possible to, and at the same time as, the crop containing Bt technologies.

In the Philippines, Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) implemented the Bt corn IRM plan thru the DA Memorandum Circular 2 series of 2014 (MC2, s 2014 ), stipulating that:

    a) pyramided products, or corn with multiple Bt insecticidal proteins, like DEKALB® with Genuity® hybrid corn seeds, are required to have at least 5% refuge implemented either as RIB (seed blend) or as structured refuge (BIB);

    b) single Bt corn products are required to have 10% refuge planted as BIB1.

These mandatory regulatory programs have been developed and updated through cooperation with technology developers and government regulators.

As a condition of registration of Bt products by the BPI, seed companies are required to conduct IRM compliance assessments during the growing season to confirm grower compliance. Failure to follow IRM guidelines and properly plant a refuge will increase the probability of insects developing resistance. Continued availability of Bt technologies depends on grower compliance with BPI registration conditions.

1 Memorandum Circular No. 02, Series of 2014, “Enhancing the Insect Resistance (IRM) Strategy for Bt Corn Targeting Asian Corn Borer (ACB),” February 4, 2014.

What is DEKALB® with Genuity® Hybrid Corn Seed?

DEKALB® with Genuity® 5% RIB Hybrid Corn Seed, like

DEKALB® 9132S Genuity ® 5% RIB

DEKALB® 6919S Genuity® 5% RIB

DEKALB® 5885S Genuity® 5% RIB

DEKALB® 7898S Genuity® 5% RIB

DEKALB® 6818S Genuity®  5% RIB

contain two Bt proteins (Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2) that provide high dose and separate modes of action for control of Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis), corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera), and Common cutworm (Spodoptera litura). Providing two different Bt proteins with different modes of action for control will significantly decrease           the probability that these target insects will become resistant to Bt, resulting in enhanced durability of Genuity ®. DEKALB Genuity ® products also confer tolerance to over-the-top applications of Roundup ® agricultural herbicides.

What is the advantage of planting DEKALB ® with Genuity ® 5% RIB Hybrid Corn Seed?

  •  Larger area in farmer’s fields are protected from target insect pests
  • 95% Bt in DEKALB® with Genuity® 5% RIB Hybrid Corn Seed, versus 90% of competitors
  • Growers can maximize yield without compromising product effectiveness. 
  • Under low insect pressure, yield potential is achievable.
  • Under high insect pressure, yield loss is minimal.
  • Convenience in planting, as Bt and refuge seeds are planted uniformly
  • No added labor and field planning required, as there is no      separate refuge planting necessary
  • Ensures longevity of use of the technology, as risk of insect resistance is reduced
  • Ensures 100% farmer field compliance
  • Ease of monitoring for regulators, as compliance is transferred to seed manufacturers

Corn refuge requirements and planting guide for other Bt corn

For single Bt corn products, like DEKALB YieldGard® (e.g. DEKALB 878RRC2YG) offer farmers all the benefits of protection against corn borer, and tolerance to over-the-top applications of Roundup agricultural herbicides.

Managing DEKALB YieldGard® corn requires a farmer to follow the recommended management practices associated with each individual trait. YieldGard® and other single Bt corn are packaged as 90% Bt seeds with a separate bag of 10% BIB refuge, which must be planted separately. Because of separate refuge planting, farmer compliance must be monitored to help reduce the risk of target insects developing resistance.

Planting guide for 10% BIB refuge for single Bt corn hybrids

  • Plant the refuge corn within, adjacent to, or near the Bt corn fields.
  • The refuge must be placed within 800 meters to help provide a population of susceptible insects near the Bt corn field.
  • Refuge configurations include a block within the Bt field, field perimeters or end rows, or four row strips alternating with Bt corn.
  • Plant and manage the refuge at the same time and in the same way as the Bt.
  • Use hybrids of similar maturities in both the Bt and refuge plantings.
  • Reducing inputs or planting the refuge on marginal land merely reduces the effectiveness of the refuge.
  • Farmers mixing refuge seed with their single Bt corn seed is not mandated by BPI.
  • Farmers cannot utilize neighbors’ corn fields for their refuge.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) describes an effective and environmentally sustainable approach to pest management that relies on a combination of “common sense” practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information is used to manage pests in a manner that is least impactful to people, property and the environment.


Use the best agronomic management practices, in conjunction with the appropriate seed product, to help obtain the greatest yield benefits.

  • Use seed products, seeding rates and planting technologies appropriate for each specific crop and geographical area.
  • As much as possible, manage the crop to avoid plant stress.
  • Employ appropriate scouting techniques and treatment decisions to preserve beneficial insects that can provide additional insect pest control.
  • Observe appropriate maturity and harvest schedules.
  • Destroy crop residue immediately after harvest to avoid regrowth and minimize selection for resistance in late-season infestations.
  • Use proper crop rotation practices, and target pests using different forms of control to make it more difficult for pests to adapt.
  • In areas where crop rotation is not practiced, and/or where pest pressure is high, the use of products with multiple modes of action, such as Genuity® 5% RIB corn hybrids, is strongly recommended.

Monitoring Pests

Carefully monitor fields for all pests to determine the need for remedial insecticide treatments. For target pests, scouting techniques and supplemental treatment decisions should take into account the fact that larvae must hatch and feed before they will be affected by the Bt protein(s). Fields should be scouted regularly, following periods of heavy or sustained egg lay, especially during bloom, to determine if significant larval survival has occurred.

Weed Resistance Management

As leaders in the development and stewardship of Roundup Ready 2 technology® and Roundup® agricultural herbicides and other products, Monsanto invests significantly in research done in conjunction with academic scientists, extension specialists, and crop consultants, that includes an evaluation of the factors that can contribute to the development of weed resistance and how to properly manage weeds to delay the selection of weed resistance.


Proactively implementing diversified weed control strategies to help minimize selection for weed populations resistant to one or more herbicides is recommended. Using the labeled rate and following label use directions at the right time (when weed height is less than 4 inches) is important to delay the selection for resistance. Scouting after herbicide application is important because it can facilitate the early identification of weed shifts and/or weed resistance and thus provide direction on future weed management practices.

One of the best ways to contain resistant populations is to implement measures to avoid allowing weeds to reproduce by seed or to proliferate vegetatively. Cleaning equipments between sites and avoiding movement of plant material between sites will greatly aid in retarding the spread of resistant weed seed.

Monsanto’s Roundup Ready Weed Management Solutions platform is based upon the principle of farmers implementing diversified weed management programs in Roundup Ready crops as described below. It is composed of recommendations that represent Monsanto’s commitment to stewarding weed resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides in Roundup Ready crops.

  • Start with a clean, weed-free field
  • Use herbicide spray at the right application rate at the right time, following the label directions
  • Use a diverse set of weed control tools, including residual herbicides that use a different mechanism of action 
  • Control weed escapes and remove weeds before they set seed
  • If a particular weed is suspected to have resistance, immediately contact your local Monsanto representative


Monsanto actively investigates and studies weed control complaints and claims of weed resistance. When glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes are confirmed, Monsanto provides recommended control measures, which may include additional herbicides, tank-mixes or cultural practices. Monsanto actively communicates all of this information to growers through multiple channels, including the herbicide label, supplemental labeling, this agronomic handbook, media and written communications, Monsanto’s website,,, and grower meetings.

Growers must be aware of and proactively manage for glyphosate resistant weeds in planning their weed control program. If a weed is known to be resistant to glyphosate, then a resistant population of that weed is by definition no longer controlled with labeled rates of glyphosate. Roundup agricultural herbicides are not warranted to cover the failure to control glyphosate-resistant weed populations. Report any incidence of repeated non-performance of Roundup agricultural herbicides or other glyphosate products on a particular weed to the appropriate company representative, local retailer, or county extension agent.

Complaint Management

When you purchase any DEKALB® corn product, make sure you keep the seed tag, which contains the lot number associating your DEKALB® bag to a particular seed lot or batch. Contact your local Monsanto representative as soon as any product-related issue arises. Make sure that you quote the lot number in your seed tag as this serves as reference number for Monsanto in tracking your seed bag’s original batch.

Inspect your seed bag before purchase to ensure that there is no damage in the packaging. The DEKALB® seed bag is produced using the best quality material to ensure the corn seeds’ freshness and quality. Once the package has been opened, plant seeds must be immediately grounded. 

Handling and Disposal of Treated Seeds, Seed Bags, and Pesticide Containers

DEKALB® seeds are treated with chemicals to ensure early plant and root establishment and to ensure that every single seed is protected against early season pests and and diseases.

Care should be taken in the handling of treated seeds, just as when working with any pesticide, to help prevent pesticide exposure to the handler, non-target organisms and our water resources. Always check the seed bag label for specific details about the product you are using. Treated seed is dyed to an unnatural color to prevent unintended use of such seed as food, feed, or oil. Treated seed should be stored away from feeds and foodstuffs. Do not allowaccess to treated seed by children, pets, or livestock.

Protect yourself while working with treated seeds, seed bags, pesticides and any containers that contained any noxious chemicals or contents.

Wear a mask to avoid breathing in dust or fumes from seeds and containers. Use goggles or shades to avoid any debris or chemicals coming into contact with your eyes.

Make sure to use personal protective equipments (PPE), such as long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, socks, and chemical resistant gloves made of any waterproof material every time you handle treated seeds and pesticides.

Wash hands and any exposed skin thoroughly with soap and water after handling treated seed.

The best way to dispose of a small quantity of leftover seed that has been treated with a pesticide is to plant it in fallow or other non-cropped areas of the farm.